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"Contrary to current belief, it was the departure of a large river, rather than its arrival, that triggered the growth of Indus urban centres," said Gupta.evidence shows that many of the settlements in the Indus was developed along the banks of a river called the Ghaggar-Hakra.The study, led by researchers from Imperial College London (ICL) in the UK and the Indian Institute of Technology (IIT) Kanpur, showed that a major Himalayan river did not flow at the same time as the development of Indus Civilisation urban settlements.The researchers say the time gap between the river shifting course and the Indus Civilisation settlements appearing rules out the existence of a Himalayan-fed river that nourished Indus Civilisation urban settlements along the river channel."We now know that, given the right conditions, valleys that have lost their rivers can still serve as a water source," said Rajiv Sinha from the IIT Kanpur.

"The findings challenge our current understanding of how urbanisation in many ancient civilisations began and grew in relation to natural resources," said Sanjeev Gupta, from Department of Earth Science and Engineering at ICL.This research shows how ancient urban centres did not necessarily need an active, flowing river system in order to thrive.Scientists have found that much of the Indus civilisation thrived around an extinct river, challenging ideas about how urbanisation in ancient cultures evolved.Research in this area has been focusing on the role of rivers drying up leading to abandonment of urban centres by ancient communities.It has generally been thought that this was a major Himalayan river that dried up either due to climatic or tectonic changes."The civilisation would also not have been threatened by the risk of devastating floods that living next to a big river brings," Sinha said.This meant that despite not flowmeters for sale living along a permanent river, the Indus settlements still benefited from a water source.

(Photo: Pixabay)The Indus civilisation flourished along a course abandoned by the major Himalayan river Sutlej, and did not develop around a flowing river as believed, scientists from India and the UK have found.Scientists had assumed that it flowed while the Indus urban centres grew, playing an active role in their development.The study, published in the journal Nature Communications, shows the Sutlej River - a major Himalayan river - used to flow along the trace of the Ghaggar-Hakra river but rapidly changed course upstream eight thousand years ago.

Archaeological evidence shows that many of the settlements in the Indus or Harappan Civilisation was developed along the banks of a river called the Ghaggar-Hakra in northwest India and Pakistan.However, the researchers in todays study suggest their work could help archaeologists to take a fresh look at the development of urbanisation in early civilisations.They found that after the Sutlej River changed course, the scar it left in the landscape acted as a topographic low to capture river flow during the monsoon.Most major ancient urban civilisations, such as Egypt and Mesopotamia, formed around big rivers, so the implications of these findings extend well beyond the Indus.This meant that three thousand years later, when the Indus people settled the area, there was only an abandoned large river valley occupied by seasonal monsoon river flow instead of a large Himalayan river.

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Millions of women take calcium supplements to strengthen bones made brittle by osteoporosis, a bone-thinning disorder that typically develops starting during menopause when the body slows production of new bone tissue.For women with a history of stroke, the dementia risk was almost seven times higher if they took calcium supplements than if they didn’t.Still, the findings from this observational study don’t prove calcium supplements directly cause dementia, Kern added by email. “To say that only one nutrient increases the risk of dementia is premature and more studies need to look at a combination of nutrients.“These findings need to be replicated before any recommendations can be made,” Kern said.“Women and the public need to realize that when we talk about micronutrients –calcium included – and cognitive functioning, we need to consider that the combination of nutrients will be more predictive than one nutrient,” said Dr.Among women without a stroke history or white matter lesions, however, there wasn’t any increased dementia risk associated with calcium supplements. Silke Kern of the University of Gothenburg in Sweden.

In addition, the study didn’t look at how much calcium women got in their diets, which can affect the body differently than supplements and is thought to be safe or even protective against blood flow problems, the authors note. When women had white matter lesions that can be a precursor to strokes, the dementia risk was three times greater when they took calcium supplements.The heightened dementia risk appears limited to women who have had a stroke or suffer from other disorders that affect blood flow to the brain, researchers report in the journal Neurology.“For example, calcium, phosphorus and magnesium all are typically looked at for their effects on multiple organs, and cognitive functioning will be affected most likely by a combination of these nutrients,” Aggarwal added by email. Even for women who have had a stroke, it’s too soon to say for dementia risk appears limited to women who have had a stroke or suffer from disorders that affect blood flow to the brain. Among the women who had brain scans, 71 percent had so-called white matter lesions, which are signs of mini-strokes and other disorders that affect blood flow to the brain. But the increased risk appeared limited to people who had a stroke or other signs of existing cerebrovascular disease. Neelum Aggarwal, a researcher at Rush University Medical Center in Chicago who wasn’t involved in the study.“Our study is the first to show a relationship between calcium supplementation and increased risk for dementia in older women,” said lead author Dr. A subset of about 450 women also got brain scans.

When the study began, 98 women were taking calcium supplements and 54 participants had already experienced a stroke.”end-of.Beyond its small size, other limitations of the study include the lack of follow-up brain scans at the end of the study, which made it impossible for researchers to assess how calcium supplements may have influenced the development of white matter lesions or silent strokes.Some older women who take calcium supplements commonly recommended to ward off age-related bone damage may face an increased risk of developing dementia, a small study suggests.Overall, women who took calcium supplements were twice as likely to develop dementia as their peers who didn’t, the study found. (Photo: Pixabay) The heightened dementia risk appears limited to women who have had a stroke or suffer from disorders that affect blood flow to the brain.At the start of the study, and again China Rotameter five years later, women did a variety of psychiatric and cognitive tests including assessments of memory and reasoning skills. During the study, 54 more women had strokes, and 59 women developed dementia.For the current study, Kern and colleagues examined data on 700 women between the ages of 70 and 92 who didn’t have dementia.

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